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Purpose[ edit ] The purpose of Bollinger Bands is to provide a relative definition of high and low prices of a market. By definition, prices are high at the upper band and low at the lower band.

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This definition can aid in rigorous pattern recognition and is useful in comparing price action to the action of indicators Standardowy wskaznik przepustowosci Bollinger arrive at systematic trading decisions. Uses for bandwidth include identification of opportunities arising from relative extremes in volatility and trend identification.

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Interpretation[ edit ] The use of Bollinger Bands varies widely among traders. Some traders buy when price touches the lower Bollinger Band and exit when price touches the moving average in the center of the bands. Other traders buy when price breaks above the upper Bollinger Band or sell when price falls below the lower Bollinger Band.

When the bands lie close Stochastyczna strategia RSI MACD, a period of low volatility is indicated. Traders are often inclined to use Bollinger Bands with other indicators to confirm price action. In particular, the use of oscillator-like Bollinger Bands will often be coupled with a non-oscillator indicator-like chart patterns or a trendline.

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If these indicators confirm the recommendation of the Bollinger Bands, the trader will have greater conviction that the bands are predicting correct price action in relation to market volatility. InLento et al.

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The authors did, however, find that a simple reversal of the strategy "contrarian Bollinger Band" produced positive returns in a variety of markets. Similar results were found in another study, which concluded that Bollinger Band trading strategies may be effective in the Chinese marketplace, stating: "we find significant positive returns on buy trades generated by the contrarian version of the moving-average crossover rule, the channel breakout rule, and the Bollinger Band trading rule, after accounting for transaction costs of 0.

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A recent study examined the application of Bollinger Band trading strategies combined with the ADX for Equity Market indices with similar results. Their results indicated that by tuning the parameters to a particular asset for a particular market environment, the out-of-sample trading signals were improved compared to the default parameters. Such techniques usually require the sample to be independent and identically distributed, which is not the case for a time series like security prices.

Just the opposite is true; it is well recognized by practitioners that such price series are very commonly serially correlated[ citation needed ]—that is, each price will be Standardowy wskaznik przepustowosci Bollinger related to its ancestor "most of the time".

Adjusting for serial correlation is the purpose of moving standard deviationswhich use deviations from the moving averagebut the possibility remains of high order price autocorrelation not accounted for by simple differencing from the moving average. For such reasons, it is incorrect to assume that the long-term percentage of the data that will be observed in the future outside the Bollinger Bands range will always be constrained to a certain amount.

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Practitioners may also use related measures such as the Keltner channelsor the related Stoller average range channels, which base their band widths on different measures of price volatility, such as the difference between daily high and low prices, rather than on standard deviation. Bollinger bands outside of finance[ edit ] Bollinger bands have been applied to manufacturing data to detect defects anomalies in patterned fabrics. The International Civil Aviation Organization is using Bollinger bands to measure the accident rate as a safety indicator to measure efficacy of global safety initiatives.

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