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I Editor-in-chief Piotr P. Twenty-four land laws, 24 14 Jef thet is liodcuth, thet … him sines godes se ur-bruden tha ur-burnen tha thes nachtes thermithi ur-stelen se, sa ne thur hi ther-umbe nene ondwarde dwa, thruch thet ther ne mi nen mon otheres monnes god firor an plicht nema, thare sin ein god. The mere presence of English loans among Māori basic words is indeed remarkable. Analysis Since the identification of English loans was guided by phonological and phonotactic criteria, it is necessary to provide a brief overview of the Māori sound system cf. These are schematized in table 1 below: Table 1. Oferują oni rodzaj intymności, jakiego firma nie jest w stanie osiągnąć.

I Editor-in-chief Piotr P. Cmeciu Galati, RomaniaPiotr P. Podwale 75, Wrocław www. Piotr P. Kotin Typologia ogólna a typologia historyczna.

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I s. These two groups of texts provide certain legal limitations, however are of slightly different structure.

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Old Frisian laws are, most of the time, the result of analysis of individual cases which are later on generalized, whereas Anglo-Saxon legal codes are of more organized form, prepared for promulgation by one authority. The paper contrasts the lexical choices Komentarz Baine Merchants Choice Baine by the scribes, especially the level of formality of the language, structures of the sentences, whether they are organized in a dialog or prescriptive vs.

Furthermore, the styles of the texts are compared and analyzed with the main focus on the usage of the different text types. Thus, the presence of the descriptive, narrative or argumentative elements in the texts is taken into consideration while presenting the differences and similarities between them. The paper aims at showing the variety of stylistic methods used within the same Germanic linguistic culture, as far as legal texts are concerned. Keywords: lexical and stylistic abstractness, asyndetic coordination, syndetic coordination, sanction clauses 1.

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Introduction At the time of Germanic settlement of Britain, all the tribes already had well developed legal systems, which were based on the spoken tradition passed from generation to generation. However, it was not until the adoption of Christianity, the growth of the royal administration and the disappearance of the tribal structures, that the majority of those legal customs were written down.

Katarzyna Buczek 8 With the codification of law, certain differences between the acts appeared too. Due to the slightly different sources of the Anglo-Saxon and Frisian laws, the style they were written in is also different as far as the structure of the sentences, level of formality of the language, sophistication and the abstractness of the used words are concerned.

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Structure of the sentences In both Frisian and Anglo-Saxon legal texts, the majority of the sentences consist of two parts: one containing the crime, or the certain condition that must be committed, and the second part with the sanction to be implemented later on. Here, the conditional clause is in the majority of cases followed by the main clause. Conditional clauses in Anglo-Saxon and Old Frisian texts were composed of an adverbial clause of condition with the conjunction gif in initial position, subordinated to the main clause.

Asyndetic coordination The coordination of two or more conditional clauses or two or more predicates parts of the sentence which state something about the subject in a conditional clauses was also possible.

Thus, we had asyndetic coordination in which no coordinating conjunction Strategie handlowe SMA. the clauses was present, with the repetition of gif and change of subject like in for example: 1 Gif mon ðonne þæs ofslægenan weres bidde, he mot gecyþan, þæt he hine for ðeof ofsloge, nalles þæs ofslegenan gegildan ne his hlaford. Gif he hit ðonne dierneð, 7 weorðeð ymb long yppe, ðonne rymeð he ðam deadan to ðam aðe, þæt hine moton his mægas unsyngian.

A Stylistic Comparison 4 Jef hit queth, hwanat him come, ief hi mi bi-sekth and queth, thet ik hia nomia skille, sa nomie ik hia son; bi thiu mot ik thet erue halda buta stride mith ded-ethon.

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Twenty-four land laws, 21 2. Syndetic coordination The syndetic coordination of clauses, in which a coordinating conjunction appeared, was additionally used as a stylistic device, as in examples 5, 6, 7 from The Laws of Ine and 8 Generator strategii handlowej Seventeen Statutes: 5 Gif hwa fare unaliefed fram his hlaforde oððe on oðre scire hine bestele, 7 hine mon geahsige, fare þær he ær wæs 7 geselle his hlaforde.

Gif ðonne Englisc onstal ga forð, onsace þonne be twyfealdum; gif hit ðonne bið Wilisc onstal, ne bið se að na ðy mara. Ælc mon mot onsacan frymþe 7 werfæhðe, gif he mæg oððe dear.


Seventeen Statutes, 9 Syndetic coordination in a protasis opening clause was widely used especially in Anglo-Saxon texts Schwyter Some parts of The Laws of Ine include syndetic coordination of clauses and syndetic coordination of Komentarz Baine Merchants Choice Baine, whereas other give the examples of syndetic coordination of clauses with additional subordination: 9 Gif mon forstolenne man befo æt oþrum, 7 sie sio hand oðcwolen, sio hine sealde þam men þe hine mon ætbefengtieme þonne þone mon to þæs deadan byrgelse, swa oðer fioh swa hit sie, 7 cyðe on þam aðe be.

Þonne hæfð he þæt wite afylled mid þy aðe, agife þam agendfrio þone monnan. Gif he þonne wite, hwa ðæs deadan ierfe hæbbe, tieme þonne to Komentarz Baine Merchants Choice Baine ierfe 7 bidde ða hond þe þæt ierfe hafað, þæt he him gedo þone ceap unbeceasne oþþe gecyðe, þæt se deada næfre þæt ierfe ahte. The Laws Duze strategie handlowe Alfred 2.

Gif he ðonne oðierne 7 orige weorðe, Ilosciowe strategie handlowe bið he wites scyldig.

Gif he onsacan wille, do he ðæt be ðam feo 7 be ðam wite.

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Gif he hit þonne dierne, 7 sie eft yppe, þonne forgielde he hine. Gif mon to þam men feoh geteme, ðe his ær oðswaren hæfde 7 eft oðswerian wille, oðswerige be ðam wite 7 be ðæs feos weorðe; gif he oðswerian nylle, gebete þone mænan að twybote.

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Twenty-four land laws, 24 14 Jef thet is liodcuth, thet … him sines godes se ur-bruden tha ur-burnen tha thes nachtes thermithi ur-stelen se, sa ne thur hi ther-umbe nene ondwarde dwa, thruch thet ther ne mi nen mon otheres monnes god firor an plicht nema, thare sin ein god.

Clauses analysed above like: if-than conditions including adverb clauses of conditionrelative clauses, sanction clauses, clauses with syndetic or asyndetic coordination are present to the same degree in the Old Frisian as well as Anglo-Saxon legal texts.

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The only difference according to Bremmer is the orthographical and lexical one, as in Old Frisian the structures can begin with jef gef spelled with g, ef, iof, of, ieftjefma Komentarz Baine Merchants Choice Baine one], jeftha, jeft, that is … that jef.

What is more, in contrast to the Anglo-Saxon legal texts, early Old Frisian laws like the land-laws Komentarz Baine Merchants Choice Baine the statutes are never composed only of such conditional structures but also have narrative sentences, whose main role is to provide the reader or the listener with the background knowledge of the specific situation presented, or the conditions to be taken into account.

Such features of the text appear, due to the mentioned in the beginning fact, that Frisian laws were established due to the certain legal cases Bremmerwhereas Anglo-Saxon laws, even though following certain tribal traditions, were mainly the product of one or two people writing down the word of the ruler.

Therefore, it has to be clearly stated that narrative sentences in Anglo-Saxon laws do not convey any legal material as such, but give the reasons when and why a certain Komentarz Baine Merchants Choice Baine was promulgated, or simply describe facts and states of affairs.

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Level of formality of the language As far as the level of formality of the language in both Anglo-Saxon and Old Frisian legal texts is concerned, it has to be stated that there are certain distinct differences. Twenty-four land laws from Frisian law, for example, are a collection of regional legal customs and precedents compiled and intended primarily for the use in internal Frisian legal matters. A good example of the usage of simple language is the 5 land-law which presents the situation in which a family has to defend its title to a piece of land bought Komentarz Baine Merchants Choice Baine a pilgrim.

Here the simple legal regulation is presented with the almost visual picture of a situation.

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We can see dramatically presented examples of possible events, which are deliberately created to make the law easy to understand.